Biofuels were called “a crime against humanity” in 2007 by Jean Ziegler, the UN’s special rapporteur. "In August (2007) the first riots took place among the peasant farmers being driven off the land (in India) to make way for them (biofuels)." 2007 UK Guardian article:
11/7/2007, "An Agricultural Crime Against Humanity," UK Guardian, George Monbiot
"Biofuels could kill more people than the Iraq war. It doesn’t get madder than this. Swaziland is in the grip of a famine
and receiving emergency food aid. Forty per cent of its people are
facing acute food shortages. So what has the government decided to
export? Biofuel made from one of its staple crops, cassava (1). The
government has allocated several thousand hectares of farmland to
ethanol production in the county of Lavumisa, which happens to be the
place worst hit by drought (2). It would surely be quicker and more
humane to refine the Swazi people and put them in our tanks. Doubtless a
team of development consultants is already doing the sums.
This is one of many examples of a trade described last month by Jean
Ziegler, the UN’s special rapporteur, as “a crime against humanity” (3).
Ziegler took up the call first made by this column for a five-year
moratorium on all government targets and incentives for biofuel (4): the
trade should be frozen until second-generation fuels – made from wood or
straw or waste – become commercially available. Otherwise the superior
purchasing power of drivers in the rich world means that they will
snatch food from people’s mouths. Run your car on virgin biofuel and
other people will starve.
Even the International Monetary Fund, always ready to immolate the
poor on the altar of business, now warns that using food to produce
biofuels “might further strain already tight supplies of arable land and
water all over the world, thereby pushing food prices up even
further.” (5) This week the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation will
announce the lowest global food reserves in 25 years, threatening what
it calls “a very serious crisis”(6). Even when the price of food was
low, 850 million people went hungry because they could not afford to buy
it. With every increment in the price of flour or grain, several
million more are pushed below the breadline.
The cost of rice has risen by 20% over the past year, maize by 50%,
wheat by 100% (7). Biofuels aren’t entirely to blame – by taking land out
of food production they exacerbate the effects of bad harvests and
rising demand – but almost all the major agencies are now warning
against expansion. And almost all the major governments are ignoring
They turn away because biofuels offer a means of avoiding hard
political choices. They create the impression that governments can cut
carbon emissions and – as Ruth Kelly, the British transport secretary,
announced last week (8) – keep expanding the transport networks. New
figures show that British drivers puttered past the 500 billion
kilometre mark for the first time last year (9). But it doesn’t matter:
we just have to change the fuel we use. No one has to be confronted. The
demands of the motoring lobby and the business groups clamouring for
new infrastructure can be met. The people being pushed off their land
In principle, burning biofuels merely releases the carbon they
accumulated when they were growing. Even when you take into account the
energy costs of harvesting, refining and transporting the fuel, they
produce less net carbon than petroleum products. The law the British
government passed a fortnight ago – by 2010, 5% of our road transport
fuel must come from crops (10) – will, it claims, save between 700,000
and 800,000 tonnes of carbon a year (11). It derives this figure by
framing the question carefully.
If you count only the immediate carbon
costs of planting and processing biofuels, they appear to reduce
greenhouse gases. When you look at the total impacts, you find that they
cause more warming than petroleum.
A recent study by the Nobel laureate Paul Crutzen shows that the
official estimates have ignored the contribution of nitrogen
fertilisers. They generate a greenhouse gas – nitrous oxide – which is
296 times as powerful as CO2. These emissions alone ensure that ethanol
from maize causes between 0.9 and 1.5 times as much warming as petrol,
while rapeseed oil (the source of over 80% of the world’s biodiesel)
generates 1-1.7 times the impact of diesel (12). This is before you
account for the changes in land use.
A paper published in Science three months ago suggests that
protecting uncultivated land saves, over 30 years, between two and nine
times the carbon emissions you might avoid by ploughing it and planting
biofuels (13). Last year the research group LMC International estimated
that if the British and European target of a 5% contribution from
biofuels were to be adopted by the rest of the world, the global acreage
of cultivated land would expand by 15% (14). That means the end of most
tropical forests. It might also cause runaway climate change.
The British government says it will strive to ensure that “only the
most sustainable biofuels” will be used in the UK (15). It has no means
of enforcing this aim – it admits that if it tried to impose a binding
standard it would break world trade rules (16). But even if
“sustainability” could be enforced, what exactly does it mean? You
could, for example, ban palm oil from new plantations. This is the most
destructive kind of biofuel, driving deforestation in Malaysia and
Indonesia. But the ban would change nothing. As Carl Bek-Nielsen, vice
chairman of Malaysia’s United Plantations Bhd, remarked, “even if it is
another oil that goes into biodiesel, that other oil then needs to be
replaced. Either way, there’s going to be a vacuum and palm oil can fill
that vacuum.” (17) The knock-on effects cause the destruction you are
trying to avoid. The only sustainable biofuel is recycled waste oil, but
the available volumes are tiny (18).
At this point the biofuels industry starts shouting “jatropha!” It is
not yet a swear word, but it soon will be. Jatropha is a tough weed
with oily seeds that grows in the tropics. This summer Bob Geldof, who
never misses an opportunity to promote simplistic solutions to complex
problems, arrived in Swaziland in the role of “special adviser” to a
Because it can grow on marginal land, jatropha, he
claimed, is a “life-changing” plant, which will offer jobs, cash crops
and economic power to African smallholders (19).
Yes, it can grow on poor land and be cultivated by smallholders. But
it can also grow on fertile land and be cultivated by largeholders. If
there is one blindingly obvious fact about biofuel it’s that it is not a
smallholder crop. It is an internationally-traded commodity which
travels well and can be stored indefinitely, with no premium for local
or organic produce. Already the Indian government is planning 14m
hectares of jatropha plantations (20). In August the first riots took
place among the peasant farmers being driven off the land to make way
for them (21).
If the governments promoting biofuels do not reverse their policies,
the humanitarian impact will be greater than that of the Iraq war.
Millions will be displaced, hundreds of millions more could go hungry.
This crime against humanity is a complex one, but that neither lessens
nor excuses it. If people starve because of biofuels, Ruth Kelly and her
peers will have killed them. Like all such crimes it is perpetrated by
cowards, attacking the weak to avoid confronting the strong."
1. IRIN Africa, 25th October 2007. Swaziland: Food or biofuel seems
to be the question. http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=74987
2. Energy Current, 29th October 2007. Swaziland joins biofuel drive
despite mounting food crisis.
3. Grant Ferrett, 27th October 2007. Biofuels ‘crime against humanity’. BBC Online.
4. George Monbiot, 27th March 2007. A Lethal Solution. The Guardian.
5. Valerie Mercer-Blackman, Hossein Samiei, and Kevin Cheng, 17th
October 2007. Biofuel Demand Pushes Up Food Prices. IMF Research
6. Jacques Diouf, quoted by John Vidal, 3rd November 2007. Global
food crisis looms as climate change and fuel shortages bite. The
7. John Vidal, 3rd November 2007. Global food crisis looms as climate change and fuel shortages bite. The Guardian.
8. Department for Transport, October 2007. Towards a Sustainable Transport System:
Supporting Economic Growth in a Low Carbon World.
9. Department for Transport, 2007. Transport Statistics Great Britain
2007. Table 7.1. Road traffic by type of vehicle: 1949-2006
10. HM Government, 2007. The Renewable Transport Fuel Obligations
Order 2007. http://www.opsi.gov.uk/SI/si2007/draft/20078818.htm
11. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, October 2007.
Biofuels – risks and opportunities, p4.
12. PJ Crutzen, AR Mosier, KA Smith and W Winiwarter, 1 August 2007.
N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming
reduction by replacing fossil fuels. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Discussions 7, pp11191–11205.
13. Renton Righelato and Dominick V. Spracklen, 17th August 2007.
Carbon Mitigation by Biofuels or by Saving and Restoring Forests?
Science Vol 317, p902. doi 10.1126/science.1141361.
14. AFP, 17th October 2007. IMF concerned by impact of biofuels on
15. Lord Bassam of Brighton, 29th March 2007. Parliamentary answer.
16. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, October 2007.
Biofuels – risks and opportunities, p5.
17. Benjamin Low, 24th February 2006. CPO Prices Seen Up In 06 As Biodiesel Fuels Demand
18. You can see the calculations here: http://www.monbiot.com/archives/2004/11/23/feeding-cars-not-people/
19. Helene Le Roux, 27th July 2007. Singer, songwriter and activist
promotes green energy in Africa. Engineering News Online.
20. John Vidal, ibid.
21. Mark Olden, 25th October 2007. Observations on: biofuels. New Statesman.
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