Doing Advance Work

News that doesn't receive the necessary attention.

Friday, October 31, 2014

Corrupt China coal official had $33 million in cash stashed in one of his apartments, faces bribery trial, ongoing 'crackdown on corruption in China energy sector,' hundreds of officials have fled abroad-SCMP. China has sentenced 13,000 officials for bribery so far in 2014. Many suicides among party officials -BBC

10/31/14, "Corrupt coal official had 200 million yuan [$33 million US] in cash stashed at home, prosecutors say," South China Morning Post, Andrea Chen

"Investigators have found more than 200 million yuan (HK$252 million) [$33 million US] in local and foreign currency at the home of an energy official – a record haul of corrupt cash since the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, prosecutors said on Friday.

It confirms media reports from earlier this year that Wei Pengyuan, deputy director of the National Development and Reform Commission’s (NDRC) coal department, had been put under investigation amid the sweeping crackdown on  

corruption in the country’s energy sector.

Wei was found to have bought several apartments and used one of them to store the huge pile of cash, according to media reports. Investigators had to use16 cash-counting machines to record the haul, and four of the machines broke down under the excessive workload, Caixin, a mainland financial magazine, reported.

“It marks the largest amount of money in cash we have seized from a corrupt official during a single operation since 1949”, said Xu Jinhui, an official from the Supreme People’s Procuratorate who oversees the handing of graft cases....

Wei was one of 11 officials facing trial on bribery charges laid down by the NDRC, the powerful economic policy planning agency, Xu said. Six of the corrupt officials had accepted more 60 million yuan in bribes each.

Other sacked officials from the commission include its former deputy chief Liu Tienan, who stood trial for having allegedly taken 36 million yuan in bribes.

“They are in charge of both policy making and the approval of development projects. In other words, 

they decide how much profit an enterprise can make,” Xu said.

As the price of coal surges, the NDRC’s coal department that issues licences for mines 

becomes a high-risk area for corruption
The top procuratorate had played a more active role in the country’s anti-corruption drive this year, Xu added. It has charged 35,633 officials with bribery in the first nine months this year, a 5.6 per cent increase compared to the same period last year. Eight in 10 cases involve bribes of more than 50,000 yuan or embezzlement of over 100,000 yuan.

The procuratorate has also joined the hunt for corrupt officials who have fled abroad, which has seen 502 of them tracked down between January and September."


10/31/14, "China corruption: Record cash find in official's home," BBC

"Anti-corruption investigators in China have confirmed the reported seizure of the equivalent of $33m in cash at an official's home in May - the biggest such haul to date.

More than 200m yuan (£20m) [$33 million US] were found and four out of 16 counting machines broke whilst measuring the notes, a prosecutor said.

Senior energy official Wei Pengyuan is under investigation for corruption. President Xi Jinping has promised to tackle corruption in China.

The massive haul, first reported in the Chinese press in May, was confirmed at a news conference by top anti-bribery prosecutor Xu Jinhui.

Mr Wei, who is the deputy chief of the National Energy Administration's coal department, was put under investigation in May for allegedly accepting bribes following the discovery of the hidden cash.

China has sentenced more than 13,000 officials found guilty of corruption and bribery in the first nine months of 2014 alone.

President Xi warned that his campaign against corruption would target both "tigers" and "flies", indicating that no-one, even senior party members, was exempt from the crackdown.

Since he came to power, some of China's biggest political heavyweights, including the vice-chairman of China's parliament and the former security chief have been targeted by the anti-corruption campaign.

Experts have even suggested that the proportionately high number of suicides among party officials is down to the pressure from the battle against corruption."

Image above from BBC


BBC: "From other news sites:"

"Investor's Business Daily Chinese official allegedly hides $33M in bribes 49 mins ago


Thursday, October 30, 2014

Sea ice extent prevented Northwest Passage from opening to commercial vessels in 2014 for first time in 5 years, lower temperatures

10/28/14, "Northern Sea Route Transit Applications Hit Record High in 2014,", by Mike Schuler

"The Northern Sea Route of the Northeast Passage saw a record number of applications for permits to sail the famed arctic route in 2014, while sea ice extent prevented the Northwest Passage from opening up for the first time in five years, according to new data from Weathernews Inc.’s Global Ice Center.

In their annual 2014 report, Weathernews notes that this year the Northeast Passage fully opened in late August and stayed open for six weeks until closing October 1. Russia’s Northern Sea Route Administration (NSRA) received over six hundred applications for permission to transit the Northeastern passage – or part of it – this year, the most on record, according to the report.

The lowest area of ice observed by the Global Ice Center (GIC) this summer was 4.8 million km2, which is the sixth smallest area in recorded history, but different trends were observed when comparing the Northeast Passage above Russia to the Northwest Passage above Canada.

According to the report, ice in the Northeast Passage began to melt away starting in late May, and the NSR was opened fully from August 21 to October 1. On the Canadian side, however, the Northwest Passage remained partially blocked by ice, preventing its opening to commercial vessels for the first time in five years, the report says. According to Dr. Genki Sagawa of the Global Ice Center, this was caused by lower temperatures and few low-pressure systems that help ice to break up.

The possibility of commercial use of the Northern Sea Routed emerged in 2005 when the passage opened fully for the first time, the GIC report says, followed by the first commercial voyages in 2009. Although ice extent followed a trend of recession until reaching the lowest ice coverage ever observed for more than two months in 2012, the following year saw a shorter opening period at a little more than three weeks.

The number of days the NSR stays open can vary greatly from year to year, so the GIC has been keeping a close watch on Arctic ice trends,” said Dr. Sagawa. “Even after the opening closes, it has still been possible in recent years to transit the route with ice-breaker escorts until about November. Since a lot of ice starts to appear along the route about this time, finely detailed information concerning sea ice and weather conditions become critical in order to safely sail the NSR.”

Weathernews says that the increase in applications to transit to the NSR is a good indication of the commercial shipping industries’ eagerness to reduce operating costs by sailing the NSR." via Free Rep.

Image: "Comparison of lowest recorded ice extent of 2014 and current conditions. NSR route is seen on the left. Image credit: Weathernews"


Added: Global Ice Center provides a network for maritime companies and academia. (I wasn't able to access 2014 report cited above so I include this for reference):

About Global Ice Center:

"The Global Ice Center is the “field” for maritime companies and academia to work together to achieve the dream of Polar Routing and to provide innovative service for ship safety concerning sea ice. For the innovative service, the Global Ice Center reinforces the network between maritime companies ship operations and academia by using innovative technology."

Arctic Sea Ice Extent, 10/29/14, close to 1979-2010 mean per NSIDC, click "Daily" tab:

10/29/14, Arctic Sea Ice Extent, NSIDC,  turquoise line: 


10/27/14, "Global Warming Related Sea Ice Decline Linked to Colder Winters in Europe, Asia," Climate Central, Andrea Thompson, via

"In the past decade or so, frigid winters have been happening with a regularity that defies the projections of climate models, 

which said that winter would be the fastest-warming season."...


10/24/14, "The Northwest Passage was finally successfully traversed in 1906 (Some give credit to Robert McClure in 1854, but his success, in my opinion, is dubious at best.)"... 


In 2012 alone $1 billion a day was spent on the idea of man caused global warming. 


Tuesday, October 28, 2014

The women of Kobani fight ISIS alone and with constant obstruction of Turkey-NY Times Op-ed (Billionaire Mike Bloomberg might win the Nobel Prize he seeks if he helped Kobani's fighting women instead of Turkey's billionaires).

"“Turkey is a great example, and it can be translated to other countries,” Mr. Bloomberg told his breakfast companions. And who knows, he joked, his philanthropy may even win him a Nobel Prize."
10/28/14, "A Town Shouldn’t Fight the Islamic State Alone," NY Times Op-ed, by Meysa Abdooct, a Syrian Kurd woman commander

"Turkey's Obstruction of Kobani's Battle Against ISIS." 

"Since Sept. 15, we, the people of the Syrian town of Kobani, have been fighting, outnumbered and outgunned, against an all-out assault by the army of the Islamic State, also known as ISIS.

Yet despite a campaign that has intensified in the past month, including the deployment of United States-made tanks and armored vehicles [by ISIS], the Islamic State has not been able to break the resistance of Kobani’s fighters.

We are defending a democratic, secular society of Kurds, Arabs, Muslims and Christians

who all face an imminent massacre.

Kobani’s resistance has mobilized our entire society, and many of its leaders, including myself, are women.Those of us on the front lines are well aware of the Islamic State’s treatment of women. We expect women around the world to help us, because we are fighting for the rights of women everywhere. We do not expect them to come to join our fight here (though we would be proud if any did). But we do ask women to promote our case and to raise awareness of our situation in their own countries, and to pressure their governments to help us.

We are thankful to the coalition for its intensified airstrikes against Islamic State positions, which have been instrumental in limiting the ability of our enemies to use tanks and heavy artillery. But we had been fighting without any logistical assistance from the outside world until the limited coalition airdrops of weapons and supplies on Oct. 20. Airdrops of supplies should continue, so that we do not run out of ammunition.

None of that changes the reality that our weapons still cannot match those of the Islamic State.

We will never give up. But we need more than merely rifles and grenades to carry out our own responsibilities and aid the coalition in its war against the jihadist forces. Currently, even when fighters from other Kurdish regions in Northern Syria try to supply us with some of their armored vehicles and antitank missiles, 
Turkey has not allowed them to do so.

Turkey, a NATO member, should have been an ally in this conflict. It could easily have helped us by allowing access between different Syrian Kurdish areas, so as to let fighters and supplies move back and forth through Turkish territory.

Instead, the Turkish president, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, has several times publicly equated our fighters, who are defending a diverse and democratic society, with the murderous Islamic State, evidently because of the controversy surrounding Turkey’s Kurdish minority.

Last week, following domestic and international criticism, Turkish leaders at last said they would open a corridor for a small group of Iraqi pesh merga fighters, and some Free Syrian Army brigades, to cross into Kobani. But they still will not allow other Syrian Kurds to cross Turkish territory to reach us. This has been decided without consulting us.

As a result, the Islamic State can bring in endless amounts of new supplies and ammunition, but we are still effectively blockaded on all sides — on three by the Islamic State’s forces, and on the fourth by Turkish tanks. There is evidence that Turkish forces have allowed the Islamic State’s men and equipment to move back and forth across the border. But Syrian Kurdish fighters cannot do the same.
The Turkish government is pursuing an anti-Kurdish policy against the Syrian Kurds, and their priority is to suppress the Kurdish freedom movement in Northern Syria. They want Kobani to fall.

We have never been hostile to Turkey. We want to see it as a partner, not an enemy, and we believe that it is in the Turkish government’s interest to have a border with the democratic administration of a western Kurdistan rather than one with the Islamic State.

Western governments should increase their pressure on Turkey to open a corridor for Syrian Kurdish forces and their heavy weapons to reach the defenders of Kobani through the border. We believe that such a corridor, and not only the limited transport of other fighters that Turkey has proposed, should be opened under the supervision of the United Nations.

We have proved ourselves to be one of the only effective forces battling the Islamic State in Syria. 

Whenever we meet them on equal terms, they are always defeated. If we had more weapons and could be joined by more of our fighters from elsewhere in Syria, we would be in a position to strike a deadly blow against the Islamic State, one that we believe would ultimately lead to its dissolution across the region as a whole.

The people of Kobani need the attention and help of the world."

This article was translated from the Kurdish for the New York Times by G├╝ney Yildiz.

A version of this op-ed appears in print on October 29, 2014, in The International New York Times."


"Isis...boasts an arsenal of US weapons looted from the Iraqi army in Mosul." (last sentence in 10/14/14 IBTimes article)

“Turkey is a great example, and it can be translated to other countries,” Mr. Bloomberg told his breakfast companions. And who knows, he joked, his philanthropy may even win him a Nobel Prize."...

8/23/14, "Michael Bloomberg’s Harder Sell," NY Times, Landon Thomas, Jr.

"On a sweltering Saturday in June in Istanbul’s old city, Michael R. Bloomberg, power-dressed in a dark blue suit, monogrammed white shirt and cuff links, sat down to a late-morning breakfast with local antismoking activists on a rooftop overlooking the glittering Sea of Marmara.

June 2014, Bloomberg, Istanbul
The group, which included Turkish doctors and public health officials, had gathered to celebrate the surprising success of a campaign to persuade Turks, notorious for their love of tobacco, to smoke fewer cigarettes. It was a campaign formulated and funded by Bloomberg Philanthropies, the charitable foundation of Mr. Bloomberg, the former mayor of New York.

Mr. Bloomberg was in an expansive mood, holding forth on Istanbul’s antiquities and dropping the names of Turkish big shots he has known: Muhtar Kent, the chief executive of Coca-Cola, and Ahmet Ertegun, the late rock ‘n’ roll magnate. But what Mr. Bloomberg really wanted to talk about was the success of his antismoking program in Turkey, an effort that has drawn the passionate support of his newest Turkish pal, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, the former prime minister and the country’s just-elected president.

“Turkey is a great example, and it can be translated to other countries,” Mr. Bloomberg told his breakfast companions. And who knows, he joked, his philanthropy may even win him a Nobel Prize. There were some cautious titters from the audience. Was Mr. Bloomberg kidding — or was he issuing a statement of intent?...

Now the man who flirted with a presidential run has one last aspiration: mayor of the world.

Mr. Bloomberg, 72, has vowed to give away his $32.8 billion fortune before he dies. In doing so, he hopes to sharply reduce high smoking rates in Turkey, Indonesia and other countries;...

His vehicle to achieve all of this is Bloomberg Philanthropies, a foundation that he started in 2006 and that now employs about 30 people with programs in 95 countries....

'You Can Effect Change'

After his breakfast with the anti-tobacco activists, Mr. Bloomberg kicked back on a huge two-story yacht procured by staff members to take him from his hotel on the Bosporus to the next event on his schedule: commencement remarks to be delivered at Koc University, an elite institution founded by the billionaire Rahmi Koc, his friend and fellow alumnus from Johns Hopkins University.

Mr. Bloomberg had removed his jacket, revealing his still-slim waistline. As he explained how he hoped to make a difference by getting people to eat and smoke less, he tilted his already quite tan face in the direction of the hot Turkish sun.

Life is good, he had to admit. “I mean if I am not happy, I should see a shrink,” he said with a short laugh.

(Life is even better when you can donate millions of dollars to tackle Istanbul’s traffic woes and then dodge these same maladies by commuting to most of your meetings by boat.)...

Mr. Bloomberg, who owns an 88 percent stake in Bloomberg L.P. did not neglect its corporate imperatives during his two-day visit to Istanbul. Turkey, with its profitable banks and growing capital markets, is one of the company’s more dynamic growth areas. Sales of Bloomberg terminals — which present a mix of news and data to financiers — have doubled there since 2009.

So he headlined a company conference that pushed Istanbul as a regional financial center — hosting a lunch for top clients, local billionaires and Turkey’s finance minister . He also sat for an interview on Bloomberg TV.

The future belongs to cities, Mr. Bloomberg said to a packed hall of Turkish bankers as he described his efforts to attack societal ills like smoking, obesity and traffic deaths.

Of course, Mr. Bloomberg pushing Bloomberg on Bloomberg TV at a Bloomberg conference, with Bloomberg terminals everywhere, represents the very essence of the Bloomberg model.

It is a model that has made him one of the richest men in the world, but not one likely to win him the Nobel. And that is why his bid to change habits around the world is such an important component of his global game plan.
A Thinner Cloud of Smoke

During his visit to Turkey, Mr. Bloomberg took his private jet to visit Mr. Erdogan’s ancestral home on the Black Sea coast. The two men spent an hour hashing out antismoking strategies and chewing  
over developments in the Middle East."...
Image: "Visiting Istanbul, Mr. Bloomberg took a walking tour with officials including the city’s mayor, Kadir Topbas, right. Credit Ivor Prickett for The New York Times"


10/27/14, "The Ties That Bind Michael Bloomberg, Qatar and Radical Islam,", by Terresa Monroe-Hamilton and William Michael

"Bloomberg partnered with the Turkish AKP, an Islamist party hostile to Israel and secular Turks, to seriously curtail smoking in that country, just as he did in New York City:

Crowing about the success of Bloomberg Philanthropies’ anti-smoking campaign in Turkey recently, he said that “Turkey is a great example, and it can be translated to other countries....

Speaking to a group of anti-smoking activists in Turkey earlier this summer, Bloomberg joked that his philanthropy 
may win him a Nobel prize.

Yes, because an award dripping in blood is a prized possession and all that....

BP has been working with the Turkish government since 2009, when its nationwide public smoking ban first went into effect....

In Turkey, where terrorism reigns and encroaching and aggressive Sharia law continues to oppose basic human rights,  Bloomberg is fighting a war on smoking.

For instance, Turkey leads the world in imprisoned journalists. Ironic, since Bloomberg fancies himself the ultimate journalist and businessman. This is a country at the forefront of a rising Caliphate — one in which Christians and Jews are especially persecuted for their religious views. Bloomberg Philanthropies have spent over $600 million on tobacco control advocacy and research since 2007....

Michael Bloomberg has said of his work on gun safety, obesity and smoking cessation: “I am telling you if there is a God, when I get to heaven I’m not stopping to be interviewed. I am heading straight in. 

I have earned my place in heaven. It’s not even close.”... 

It is comforting that he seems to “know the mind of God.”"...


Science "rethink" called for after fragment of Australia discovered in South Pacific using new radiometric techniques-BBC

10/27/14, "Fragment of ancient Australia found under Vanuatu," BBC
"A fragment of ancient Australia has been found under Vanuatu in the South Pacific, raising questions about how continents are formed, researchers say
Experts had believed that the volcanic islands, east of Australia, were isolated from continental influence.

But a team from James Cook University says it has found tiny zircon crystals of the same age in rocks on Vanuatu and in northern Australia.

Researcher Carl Spandler said the crystals "shouldn't be there".

The tiny crystals were carried in volcanic magma, the Australian Associated Press reported, and by using the latest radiometric techniques they were dated at up to three billion years old.

Mr Spandler said that the presence of the zircon had major implications for how scientists understand how continents are made.

"There is nothing else like it in the south-west Pacific," he said.

"Just because island chains or land masses may be far removed from each other today, doesn't mean that they always were. This calls for a rethink of how we calculate the rates and processes of generating new crust on Earth."

The piece of Australian crust now under Vanuatu is believed to have separated from the mainland prior to the Cenozoic Era - about 100 million years ago." map from BBC



Unsettled science: Snail said to be 'extinct' found living in alley in Bermuda, city concrete protected snail from predators-BBC

Added, 10/29/14, "Frogs' chorus leads to discovery of new species in US," BBC, V. Gill

New frog species found in Staten Island, a borough of NY City: "Teaming up with genetics experts to confirm the finding, Mr Feinberg has now published the discovery in the journal Plos One."...


10/27/14, "Bermuda: 'Extinct' snail found living in alley," BBC

"A snail which conservationists thought was extinct has been found living in an alley in Bermuda, it's been reported.

The species of Bermudian land snail, known as Poecilozonites bermudensis, hadn't been seen on the island for more than 40 years. But now a colony of the creatures has been found flourishing in a "damp and overgrown alleyway" in the capital city, Hamilton, by a local resident, the Royal Gazette website reports. [Link may be inactive]. "For it to be found in Hamilton is unbelievable. It's the last place you would imagine that a small colony of rare snails would be discovered," says Dr Mark Outerbridge of the government's Conservation Service. It's thought that by choosing a concrete home, the snails were protected from the predators that wiped out the rest of their population, Dr Outerbridge says.

London Zoo began a Bermudian land snail programme in 2004, to help protect what was thought to be the last remaining species, Poecilozonites circumfirmatus, from extinction. The Poecilozonites family was once so common in Bermuda that they were burned for limestone, according to the Bermuda Sun. 

In 1951, another of the island's native species, the Bermuda Petrel, was rediscovered. 

Until then it was thought the seabird, also known as the cahow, 

had become extinct in the 1600s."


Friday, October 24, 2014

NY Times Editorial Board: "Why Kobani Must Be Saved." Failure to secure full cooperation of Turkey highlights weakness of US strategy

10/23/14, "Why Kobani Must Be Saved," NY Times Editorial Board, 10/24 print ed.

"If Kobani survives, it will have defied the odds. This embattled city on Syria's northern border with Turkey has been on the verge of falling for weeks in the face of a brutal siege by Islamic State militants. But the Syrian Kurds who call Kobani home continue to fight hard, and on Sunday the United States made airdrops of weapons and other supplies to bolster them. The town, once dismissed as inconsequential by American commanders, has become not only a focus of the American operation against the Islamic State, known as ISIS, but also a test of the administration’s strategy, which is based on airstrikes on ISIS-controlled areas in Syria and reliance on local ground forces to defeat the militants. A major problem is that the local ground forces are either unorganized, politically divided or, as in the case of the Kobani Kurds, in danger of being outgunned.

A setback in Kobani would show the fragility of the American plan and hand the Islamic State an important victory. Given Kobani’s location next to Turkey, the town’s fall would put the Islamic State in a position to cross the border and directly threaten a NATO ally, a move that could force the alliance to come to Turkey’s defense.

The big missing piece in the American operation is Turkey, whose reluctance to assist Kobani’s Kurds highlights the enduring weaknesses in America’s strategy. The decision to resupply the Kurds was a desperation move; the Kurds were at risk and Turkey’s president, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, has refused to help despite repeated entreaties from Washington.

Only on Monday, after the American airdrop, did Turkey say it would allow Iraqi Kurdish forces, the pesh merga, to cross Turkey into Kobani. So far, however, no reinforcements of forces have reached Kobani by way of Turkey and Mr. Erdogan made it clear on Thursday that he is prepared to let only 200 pesh merga travel through his country — hardly enough when the Islamic State reportedly has about 1,000 militants in the area.
Turkey has been a troublesome NATO ally in the best of times. Matters have been made worse by its insistence that Syria’s president, Bashar al-Assad, is a bigger threat than the Islamic State and by its complicated relationships with various Kurdish groups. Turkey has long enabled the Islamic State, whose original objective was to overthrow the Assad regime, by permitting militants, weapons and money to cross its border into Syria.

Now that the United States is leading the fight against the Islamic State, Turkey says it will work with the Americans. Yet it balks at helping Kurdish fighters in Kobani because it fears this would also strengthen the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (or P.K.K.) inside Turkey. The P.K.K. has been fighting a bitter, separatist war against the Turkish government for three decades, though recently the two sides have engaged in peace talks. It is hard to see what Mr. Erdogan gains by angering the Americans or by angering the Kurds in Iraq, the one Kurdish group with which Turkey has had good relations. Its refusal to assist also jeopardizes the nascent peace talks with the P.K.K.

There were many unknowns when President Obama began a premature and ill-advised mission into Syria. The failure to secure the full cooperation of an important ally leaves the success of the fight against the Islamic State increasingly open to question."

"A version of this editorial appears in print on October 24, 2014, on page A26 of the New York edition."...


Among comments at NY Times


"AC, USA 2 hours ago 

ISIS is Turkey's Sunni Muslim proxy army in Syria, Hezbollah is Assad's Shiite proxy army. Erdogran' preposterous objective in asking for a no-fly zone is for the US to be the air force for ISIS. Of course, if Assad goes, Erdogran will expect to determine who takes over in Syria, as ISIS will chase everyone else out of the country. In the meantime, Erdogran wants the US to create a "buffer zone" in Syria which will relieve him of his Syrian refugees, absolving him of doing anything beyond telling the US and NATO what they must do."


Ed. note: Sorry about big gaps between paragraphs which I'm unable to repair. My google hackers are embarrassed by the NY Times Editorial.


Wednesday, October 22, 2014

NOAA employee arrested for theft and illegal access of federal database in May 2012, lied to fed. investigators about it in June 2013, arrested Monday at NOAA office 50 miles from Cincinnati-Reuters

10/21/14, "NOAA employee charged with stealing U.S. dam information," Reuters, by Steve Bittenbender

"A National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) employee in Ohio has been charged with stealing sensitive information from a federal database for the nation's dams and lying about the breach to federal agents, prosecutors said. 
Xiafen "Sherry" Chen, 59, was arrested on Monday at the NOAA office in Wilmington, Ohio, about 50 miles northeast of Cincinnati, the U.S. Attorney's Office for the Southern District of Ohio said in a statement on Monday.

Chen was charged with theft, illegally accessing a federal database and two counts of making false statements to investigators. She could be sentenced to up to 10 years in prison if convicted on the theft charge and five years each if convicted on the other charges, prosecutors said.

Chen was accused of accessing restricted areas of the National Inventory of Dams on various days in May 2012 and downloading sensitive files and providing false information to investigators in June 2013, prosecutors said.

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the National Dam Safety Review Board maintain the database, which consists of dams meeting certain hazard or height criteria." via Drudge



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